The genome is the complete set of sequences in the genetic material of an organism. It includes the sequence of each chromosome plus any DNA in organelles.  基因體是指整個生物體的遺傳物質,包含染色體序列以及組成蛋白質。ex.  In human, include (1) nulcear genome, (2) mitochondria genome.

A gene (cistron) is the segment of DNA specifying production of a polypeptide chain; it includes regions preceding and following the coding region (leader and trailer) as well as intervening sequences (introns) between individual coding segments (exons). Thus gene is a sequence of DNA that codes for an RNA; in protein-coding genes, the RNA in turn codes for a protein.  基因最簡單的定義就是一段可以轉譯出 RNA 且此 RNA 可以轉錄出蛋白質的 DNA 片段。

An allele is one of several alternative forms of a gene occupying a given locus on a chromosome. 對偶基因指的是一些在染色體上相對的基因。

A locus is the position on a chromosome at which the gene for a particular trait resides; a locus may be occupied by any one of the alleles for the gene. Locus 指的是基因位在染色體上的位置。

GENE VIII 第一章 genes are DNA -- 開宗明義的指出 DNA 為遺傳物質。

*DNA 為細菌遺傳物質。1928 年,Griffith 利用 pneumococcus 證明 bacteria transformation。 ( living R + killed S pneumococcus => killed mice )   R= rough   S= smooth

*DNA 為 virus 遺傳物質。1952 年,Hershey 利用 32P-DNA & 35S-protein phage 實驗證明。

*DNA 為 animal cell 的遺傳物質。1978 年,Pellicer 用 TK gene 做 transfaction,證明 DNA can be transferred between different species and yet remain functional.。

結論 ==> The general principle of the nature of the genetic material, then, is that it is always nucleic acid; in fact, it is DNA except in the RNA viruses. <==


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